Thailand Tourism

At least until recently, tourism has been the third most important sector of Thailand’s economy, after agriculture and exports. Among ‘industries,’ tourism is listed in first place. The country is without doubt one of the world’s favorite tourist destinations, in part because of its magnificent natural beauty (of many varieties, not just the famous islands), in part because of the natural friendliness of its people, in further part because of the relative ease and safety of traveling in Thailand, which is easily done on both high and low traveler personal economies.

This situation is now in considerable flux, and concerns about the viability of Thailand’s major tourist industry are growing. Currency fluctuations and new economic policies have put a significant dent in exports as a source of GDP, and increasingly severe and unpredictable weather – primarily floods and droughts – throughout the country are an increasing concern to its agriculturalists.

Those changes make the viability of Thailand’s tourist industry all the more important. While the country has so far survived threats to the industry such as SARS, bird flu, and the 2004 tsunami relatively intact, tourism officials and operators are only too aware that a more large-scale bird flu epidemic or another tsunami (in a region where earthquakes in Indonesia such as the one that caused the one in 2004 are increasingly frequent) could have a devastating effect on the industry.

Additionally, the relocating of the country’s main airport, an expansive new facility called Suvarnaphumi planned by former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra to make Bangkok the ‘hub of Southeast Asian travel’ has been a only slightly mitigated disaster for the country and the source of considerable national shame. Hurried construction, corrupt construction practices, and overall bad planning have yielded a facility many find far inferior to the 95-year-old ‘old’ airport in Don Muang, for which longtime Thailand visitors had developed an affection, and which worked with seasoned efficiency. The new airport is daily news nationally, with alternating reports about its safety (primarily of the runways) and inconvenience. It is much farther out of the city, making it much more difficult for tourists to get to their Bangkok destinations and to others on their travel itineraries.

There are great fears among observers of Thailand’s tourist scene that it will take just one more major problem such as the ones described above to drive tourists to seek other travel destinations in Asia and elsewhere. The effects on Thailand’s economy would be devastating if tourism were to drop even a small amount.

Medical Tourism

International professional organizations, non-governmental organizations, and other international institutions work to make sure that medical training, medical practices, and medical equipment are standardized around the globe. Diagnostic terminology is set; medications from prescription drugs to anesthesia are globally-available.

Medical tourism takes advantage of this standardization of medical procedures. Doctors overseas–many of whom have trained in the US or Canada, or be members of international professional association–assure their patients that they’ll enjoy the same quality of care as they would at home, if not better.

Thailand is perhaps the best-established destination for medical tourism, and much of that is due to Thai doctors’ and hospital administrators’ global knowledge. Thai facilities’ characteristically high level of health routinism means that patients enjoy medical care and hospital experiences that are higher than, or at least comparable to, standards in their home countries. Not only do many Thai physicians hold US professional certification; a number of Thai hospitals maintain cooperative relationships with facilities in the US as well. Many travel to hospitals in Thailand for plastic surgery or other forms of cosmetic surgery from North America, Europe, and Japan.

India is developing a competitive market in health tourism, and may industry observers credit the expansion of India’s health tourism industry to the profession’s global scope. Leading facilities in India are designed to the same specifications and equipped like research hospitals anywhere else in the globe. India is not alone in transferring the globalization of medicine to the tourist industry’s benefit. So, too, do medical facilities in Singapore and the Philippines offer patients world-class medical and dental procedures.

Just as health routinism is by no means restricted to Thailand, medical tourism’s recent growth is by no means restricted to Asia. Each year, more and more travelers book tickets to Eastern Europe or south in the Americas for dental treatments, to South Africa for aesthetic surgery, or to Canada for laser treatments.

Club Vosgien – Conservation and Green Tourism in Alsace Lorraine

The Club Vosgien was created in 1872 for the development and conservation of Alsace-Lorraine’s Haut-Rhine and Vosges Mountains. Until its creation, these regions were virtually uncharted and unfamiliar areas for outdoor activities and natural tourism. Hiking routes, even those close to the villages, were unmarked and undeveloped; mountain trails were inconvenient and hazardous; rest stops for weary hikers were nonexistent and historic castles and fortresses were crumbling. As the state did little to protect and develop the region, the Club Vosgien was established when Alsace and Lorraine came together to create this private entity.

Club Vosgien’s mission focuses on the protection, development and expansion of scenic routes in the region; the promotion of walking and hiking, the preparation of guides and maps and other publications for the conservation of nature in the area. Since the late 19th century, the organization has been responsible for the study, layout and demarcation of the region’s hiking trails. To this end, the Club Vosgien has established and maintains over 16,500 km of well-marked, well-lit paths, graded by colored symbols for difficulty. These trails expose visitors to nature and provide access to outstanding scenery. The extensive and coherent network of trails covers the Ballons de Vosges National Park and the surrounding area.

The uniform markage and lighting of these routes is so good that it is virtually impossible to get lost. The trails aim to promote the discovery of natural and rural landscapes by developing practical hiking continuity and the conservation of rural roads. Currently, the Club is working on digitalization of these hiking routes.

Beyond the maintenance and development of trails, the Club Vosgien produces the “Circuits Pedestres” guidebook, which recommends graded walks with detailed maps and guides. The association ensures the promotion and development of walking tourism for all levels through the many hiking trips, family outings, trekking and cultural excursions it offers. This veritable institution attempts to reconcile the differences which arise between conservationism and the deterioration of the natural environment due to economic development. It educates towards the cultural value of green tourism, and the protection of nature through its various publications and activities.

Today, the Club Vosgien has developed into a regional federation, divided into seven departments with over 113 local associations and over 34,000 members, all focused on the conservation, protection and development of green tourism in Alsace-Lorraine.

Sylvia is a trip consultant, planner and manager who creates unique intercultural adventures for families and loves to impart information,tips and personal experiences especially related to family adventure travel.

Kerala Tourism – 3 Must & Most Visited Destinations

Kerala is a charming state curving alongside the azure Arabian Sea on the southern tip of India. It is has been one of the most sought after tourism & holiday destinations of Asia. It attracts tourists from all over the world with its unique cultural and geographical features. It is noted for vibrant culture and eye-catching greenery. In tourism parlance, it is fondly described as the God’s Own Country. The National Geographic has mentioned it one of the 50 must visit destinations of lifetime or one of the ten paradises on the earth. Breathtakingly beautiful beaches fringed by swaying palm coconut trees, vast stretches of serene and scenic backwaters, endless expanses of sprawling lush spice plantations, forested hill stations, historical monuments & sites, religious shrines & spots, deluxe houseboats, colorful fairs & festivals, etc are featured attraction of tourism in God’s Own Country.

There are many fascinating tourism destinations in God’s Own Country which are key attractions of many Kerala tour packages. Among them, Fort Kochi, Kovalam and Alleppey charts top. Fort Kochi is said to be as the Mini Kerala because its features all these things that Kerala boats. Here tourists can enjoy beach tourism, backwater tourism, houseboat cruise, boat cruise, culture & heritage tourism, and many more. St Francis Church, Mattancherry Dutch Palace, Hill Palace Museum, Jew Towns, Pardesi Synagogue, Fort Kochi, Portuguese Buildings, Colonial Homes, Willington Islands, Chinese Fishing Nets, museums, beaches, backwaters, etc are key attractions of tours and travels in Mini Kerala, Kochi.

Kovalam is a small town and combination of three semi-circular beaches namely Light House Beach, Hawa Beach and Samudra Beach. Kovalam beach in India is one of the finest beaches resorts in the world. It is wildly acclaimed and much admired by tourists and travellers. There is not matching of Kovalam beach. It has international appeal and charm. And of course vacationers from all over the world visit the beautiful beach destination of Kerala quite in good number. It is also a very popular destination of honeymoon tours Kerala. Newly weds have a wonderful opportunity to indulge in several beach activities and water sports. Beaches here are very ideal for swimming, bathing, sunbathing, and just for relaxing and watching nature beautiful in surroundings. For couples, Kovalam is a dream destination. Ayurvedic resorts, parlors and saloons are added attractions of Kovalam beach.

Alleppey is a picturesque destination in god’s own country noted for backwater tourism as well as beach tourism. Alleppey also boasts some Ayurvedic resorts. It is much admired tourist destination in the state due to its extraordinary nature beauty and amiable ambiance. Alleppey is basically known for backwater cruise with deluxe houseboats traditionally called Kettuvallams. Houseboats in Kerala are deluxe holiday home floating over serene & scenic backwaters. Staying at deluxe houseboats cruising serene & scenic backwaters is itself a unique experience of Kerala tourism and holidays.

Tourism Courses For Managerial Roles

As a signal of how important tourism is to the world’s economy, there are 234 million people estimated to be working in the sector around the world. This accounts for around 8.7 percent of the workforce. By extension, there are many more people who depend on this income – and many related industries that are supported by it in some way. With this in mind, it is little wonder that so many tourism courses have developed to meet this demand.

There are a great many jobs in tourism, but many of them are considered by many to be unskilled. In order to land the bigger, more well-paid jobs, it is important to do one of the various tourism courses available. Even a short course can help you land a better job – where a few months spent learning and training will pay of serious dividends when you start working. This article will look at tourism courses that focus on the managerial aspect of the industry, where executives and professionals need certain qualities in their training in order to be effective in the workplace.

Managerial roles in tourism require a similar degree of business acumen to domestic business in order that they are carried out correctly. Most related tourism courses do indeed cover these, and along with going over tourism principles and practice, will also cover business strategy, managing organisations and research methods.

One important aspect of these tourism courses is to instil a desire to network. With so many personalities in an industry that requires such good communication skills, being good with people is essential in order to make these contacts happen. With most managerial roles, it is important to like being with people and to embrace cultures and languages from across the world – after all, this is what you are essentially selling. Tourism courses that give a good sense of this importance, are ones that are likely to serve an individual’s career very well.

Within the UK, there has been a significant expansion of the tourism industry and related businesses, with the forthcoming London Olympics being a large catalyst. Opportunities in all areas of tourism have therefore increased a great deal, and many of these are managerial roles. Choosing a reputable tourism courses as a route to learning the required skills is crucial in order to be ready for the various demands that such jobs place upon you. While it is undeniably an exciting way to earn a living, preparation is everything.

Discover Top Medical Tourism Facilities Amongst Extreme Poverty

You may be wondering how it is that a third world country can offer medical services at a state of the art facility. How is it possible that a country can offer services to foreigners that it cannot offer to all of its own citizens?

It may seem, at first glance, that it is wrong to have multi-million dollar state of the art facilities sitting amidst extreme poverty. One has to look beyond the surface to see what the intent is. The answer is simply that countries such as India and Thailand have a vision and a mission to use the income from medical tourism to revitalize their economic system, and to use that money to provide aid to those in need.

Medical tourism is growing at a rate of approximately 20% a year. What is driving the expansion of the medical tourism industry? Countries such as India, Thailand, others have been quick to recognize that the Western world is not providing timely medical care to its citizens. In both the United States and Canada, it is not uncommon to wait for more than 4 months to be seen after a referral is made. Then, there is more waiting time while tests are scheduled. Additional time passes waiting for the test results. If the result is that there is a need for a procedure, it could be several more weeks before surgery is scheduled. Non emergency medical attention may be extended for up to two years. There is basically no wait time in foreign countries that are marketing medical tourism.

Those in the medical tourism industry also recognize that time is a precious commodity. Another aspect to the trends of medical tourism is to market to those who have little vacation or sick leave available to them. Multitasking is not new in the business world, and countries desiring to attract the medical tourist are appealing to those who would like to have an exotic and affordable vacation, but may feel they need to forgo it, in light of the upcoming surgery in the spring. Many countries are marketing their accredited, resort type facilities, and the amenities of the surrounding countryside to those in need of medical services.

India and Thailand are competing for the position of forerunners in the industry. As with many other countries, the aim is to generate the revenue that can then be put into alleviating the extreme poverty in the country. India is to have revenue of 2.3 billion by 2012. In a country that has both the very wealthy and the very poor, it is anticipated that the income from the medical tourism industry will go far in providing aid to the poor and destitute in that country.

In order to attract medical tourists, it is necessary to meet the strictest of standards and provide top quality service in state of the art facilities that more resemble a five star resort than a hospital. The stark white and green walls of the hospitals in the homeland have been replaced with color and beautiful art displays. There are plants everywhere. Some facilities offer swimming pools and fitness centers. Each room or suite of rooms better resembles a hotel room than a hospital room. Each has been meticulously decorated to appeal to the most hard to please tourists. Fresh flowers and fruit are waiting on the tables, plump pillows are plentiful and comfortable furniture is scattered around the room. The majority of marketed facilities that offer medical tourism are accredited by the IOS (International Organization of Standardization) and the JCI (Joint Commission International).

Most of the doctors who work in these medical tourism facilities have studied in the developed countries and then have returned to work in their home countries. If you are having a medical procedure done, rest assured that you will be cared for by highly qualified staff, with proficient translators standing by! Most new facilities are also equipped with the latest equipment such as heart mapping equipment, CT Scanners, Open MRI machines, heart catheterization labs, digital ultrasound and mammogram machines and more.

Yes, it is true that there are state of the art facilities that are sitting in the midst of extreme poverty and it is true that while foreigners are receiving treatment, citizens in the same neighborhood may go without. The short term benefit is that the medical tourist is able to receive timely, affordable, top quality healthcare in a choice destination. The long term goal is to revitalize the economic system of the country. The premise is that by investing the money to build the resort type facilities, send doctors for international training, and massive marketing campaigns; many of these countries will build their way out of poverty. By doing so, they will be able to provide aid to their own citizens, something that is not possible without the revenue that medical tourism brings to the country.

The Growing Philippine Tourism in Bohol

The Philippine tourism is enjoying an expanse growth as more places in the country are developing to become main tourist attractions among the local and foreign travelers alike. The Philippines is a culturally and historically rich nation and takes pride of its major attractions on nature, beaches, and historical landmarks.

The Philippine Tourist Attractions in Bohol

The Philippines is endowed with white beaches with crystal, clear and clean water that are a major attraction in different archipelagos of the country. Philippines beaches offer a tranquil respite to those who wants to enjoy a relaxed getaway closer to nature. The White beach in Boracay Island has been the center of the Philippine’s tourism with thousands of tourist visits each year. The Island of Boracay is crawling with visitors from foreign to local tourists every month.

Palawan beaches also created a distinctive beauty and attraction for being less commercialize with more preserved natural beauty to boast. Divers usually visit the place because of its known hot dive spots. Cebu beaches also provide glorious and tranquil beaches to adore.

One of the astonishing growths in the Philippine tourism is evident in Bohol. Known for its richness in cultural heritage, Bohol has its own line of tourist attractions. It has become one of the most visited places in the Visayan provinces of the Philippines. The Philippine’s Department of Tourism is promoting Bohol for its land history and natural beauty.

There are different places to visit in Bohol each with distinctive beauty and thrill. Bohol beaches are also scattered throughout the oval shape island of Bohol. It has small islets and offshore and among the popular is Panglao Island, famed for its unpolluted, clean beach waters. There are also a number of resorts in Panglao Island to accommodate the growing numbers of tourists visiting the island.

The Loboc River Cruise is becoming popular too. It is a boat ride tour along the Loboc River on a motorized floating restaurant boat with a 45-minute ride along the cool vegetations of the river. There will be a brief stop over to the Busai Falls. A seafood feast is served during the cruise.

A common stop over during a land trip cruise in the island is at the Blood Compact Site. It is the landmark where the blood compact between the Filipinos and Spaniards transpired. Another famous place to visit in Bohol is the Chocolate Hills. These are mounds of hills that look like chocolate hence the name Chocolate hills. It also offers a panoramic view to enjoy watching. Two of the highest hills have resorts to provide accommodations to the visiting tourists in the area.

The Tarsier sanctuary is another favorite destination in Bohol tours. You can see the world’s smallest primate here – the tarsiers. The antiquated Clarin Home is another place commonly included in the island tour itinerary in Bohol.

Bohol is abounding with natural beauty and cultural heritages that are well preserved and historically rich which become the main attractions in the Philippine tourism in Bohol Island.

Turkish Golf Tourism Set to Soar

Turkey is currently undergoing preparations to becoming the next European golf tourism hotspot. The present lack of operating courses in comparison to typical golfing destinations such as Spain and Portugal, is soon to be rectified with major expansion plans for Turkey.

The majority of courses currently present in the country are connected to hotels in the Belek area of the Mediterranean coast, with one course also operating in Bodrum. The remaining courses are located in Istanbul.

The tourism council understands the attraction of golf tourism to European visitors and property investors, creating plans to transform the country into a key golfing destination. The Turkish Golf Federation has designed plans for the creation of 100 courses within 4 years, aimed at generating returns of US$1 billion per year.

The holding of the 2010 European Challenge Tour in Belek provides an exciting opportunity for the introduction of golf tourism for Turkey. The tournament is also expected to provide a fantastic experience for Turkish amateurs of the sport and draw mass appeal to the awareness of golf tourism in Turkey.

Although new courses are planned for several areas including Ankara and Istanbul, the touristic appeal of the Aegean and Mediterranean coastlines is expected to continue drawing attention to Turkey’s buy-to-let and investment market. Development of new courses to championship standards will assist in the potential for Turkey to hold major international tournaments in the future.

Currently Turkey has a dozen 18-hole golf courses in the planning stages, ideal for assisting the transformation of the country into a preferred golfing destination. Luxury buy-to-let properties constructed in the vicinity of golf course enable exceptional returns in an already sought-after destination. Owners of properties in preferred locations can expect higher than average yield returns, along with increased potential for short term tenants.

As awareness of golf tourism increases in Turkey, investors are snapping up properties in key locations to ensure the greatest mid to long term capital growth potential. Providing buyers with the products suited to their highest demands is beneficial for increased foreign investment, tourism and overall awareness for future growth and sustainability.

Astronomy Tourism: World’s Best Places for Star Gazing

The beauty of night is a rare occurrence in cities where twinkling stars fade behind light pollution as the sky looks dully black in the night and where the moon also loses its shine to the fumes in atmosphere. No wonder parents living in big cities take their children miles away to merely show them the stars. Astronomy tourism, a special interest tourism that deals in seeing through the outer space, makes it possible on a wider spectrum.

Iceland South Africa Seeing stars from close while being footed firmly on earth is an enthralling experience that astronomy tourism offers. There are hotels that offer telescopes and other means for star gazing in the night sky and then there are observatories on some exclusive locations of the earth that help tourists delve deep into a world outside their world. Plus, there are a few lesser known natural sites where astronomy tourism is best enjoyed with your naked eyes.

From the clear skies of Canary Islands in Atlantic Ocean to the Northern lights that marvel in the skies on North Pole, here is a list of best places for enjoying astronomy tourism in the world. Read on and the next time you are planning a vacation, these places are sure to top your list of destinations.

Canary Islands

Enjoy the sense of being close to the cosmos at the Canary Islands, where they say, “Stars smile down on you”.

Sky watching is at its best with crystal clear night skies in the Canary Islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, just off the northwest coast of Africa. Canary Islands, which is a group of seven islands, make star gazing a thrilling experience absolutely without the help of a telescope. Because of the position of the islands in the northern latitude one can see all the constellations of the northern hemisphere throughout the year. Moreover, the Government of the Islands has taken measures to protect clean skies of the region from light pollution.

One can feel the vastness of the universe at Canary Islands where thousands of stars appear to have formed a glittery blanket over the expanse. Watching shooting stars spread showers of light in the sky or discovering constellations come to you innately in the Canary regardless of your location on a hill top, on the shores or on the country side. Moderate temperatures of the islands favor astronomy tourism round the year. Individual camping facilities and guided tours for night are available in the region.


Chile in South America is yet another country witnessing growth in astronomy tourism. The northern part of the country has postcard blue skies with sunshine for over 300 sunny days in a year that supports natural observation of the universe. The region abounds in some of world’s largest telescopes and many famous observatories including Cerro Mayu, Collowara and Mamalluca observatories in the Coquimbo region; Tololo, Pangue and La Silla observatories and the like. Chile is also home to Elqui Valley, located in the Region of Coquimbo, which has the maximum reports of UFO (Unidentified Flying Object) sightings in the world. The country definitely beckons you for a gaze at the wonders of celestial bodies.

South Africa

Home to some of the world’s known astronomical observatories, South Africa offers some of the best star viewing experiences. The country’s largest telescope called Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), which is also the largest telescope in whole of Africa, is located on a hill top near Cape Town that attracts a huge number of tourists including astronauts, engineers, students and anyone who is interested in universe irrespective of their ages. Hotels in South Africa are making the most of the astronomy tourism with telescopes in rooms on offer, giving opportunity to visitors to watch night skies at their ease.

Northern lights tours: from Iceland to Siberia

Northern lights, also known as Aurora Borealis or Auroras, are one of the most magical spectacles in the sky in the Polar Regions, one can ever observe. The magnificent display of colorful, natural lights from evening through the night sky is a breathtakingly beautiful site that takes you by awe.

These auroras are created as a result of some natural mechanism between solar wind, a flow of ions, Earth’s magnetic field and collisions between ions and atmospheric atoms and molecules that cause energy releases in the form of colorful lights.

Against the backdrop of starry, dark nights, the auroras add to the star gazing thrills on the countries located on Polar Regions. Auroras are clearly visible through the naked eyes more on North Pole than on South Pole. Iceland, northern Scandinavia, Greenland, northern Canada, Alaska, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Siberia are the ideal destinations to witness the beauty of night sky with twinkling stars and glowing Northern lights. Usually, the time of early spring or early autumn is considered best to see the Northern lights when nights are still dark.

History of Travel & Tourism

2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia

Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.

600 BC and thereafter

The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.

In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.

500 BC, the Greek civilisation

The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers’ needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.

This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds’ first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire

With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.

Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages

Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.

Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.

Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.

Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature.

The Grand Tour

From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a ‘Grand Tour’ accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas

The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.

In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts

The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point

Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west

The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century

· Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.

· Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.

· The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.

· The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.

· The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.

· Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.

· Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.

· The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.

· The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.

· The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.